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陶罐,发簪,人民币

2019-10-10 16:43 来源:中国财经网 阅读:(554)

陶罐

陶是汉代最主要的陶系,继承商周器物形制演变而来。多用于储藏的容器或作为随葬器物等用途,在全国各地均有出土。

汉代生产的陶器,制陶手工业在汉代得到很大的发展,主要表现为泥料的选择和配制越发精细,无论是泥质陶还是夹砂陶,无论是饮食器具还是储藏类巨型用具,都比较精细,成型规整、实用。器物上或刻或划,或施彩或上釉,装饰相当美观,以后历史时代的日用陶器很少能与汉代相比的。汉代(公元前206—公元220年)生产的陶器。制陶手工业在汉代得到很大的发展,主要表现为泥料的选择和配制越发精细,无论是泥质陶还是夹砂陶,无论是饮食器具还是储藏类巨型用具,都比较精细,成型规整、实用。器物上或刻或划,或施彩或上釉,装饰相当美观,以后历史时代的日用陶器很少能与汉代相比的。汉代日常用陶大多数是灰陶,在烧窑后期,还原气氛控制比较好,灰色浅淡而均匀,质地坚实耐用。此外还有红陶和黑陶,黑陶烧成温度较低,属于软陶,各类日常用具为硬质陶,软陶虽然制作精致,装饰讲究,但不实用,往往作为陪葬的冥器。汉代地域辽阔,各个地区工艺传统、生活习俗和原料质地的差异,造成了器物种类、造型结构和装饰风格的诸多不同。例如,关中地区经济最发达,文化教育水平最高,消费层次也最高,因此陶器质地精良,日用陶器有豆、盆、碗、钟、筒杯、勺、盘、缸、甄、釜、小壶、茧形壶、扁壶、钵、罐等。此地区礼仪制度最完备,盟器种类也较多,包括仿青铜鼎、彝等庄重器形,体现财富的陶仓、陶囤及表现六畜兴旺的各种家禽动物形象。装饰陶器的花纹多为变形回纹、三角纹、涡纹、龙纹、虎豹纹等。洛阳以东的关东地区,制陶业也很发达。人们的日常用陶以灰陶为主,器形有罐、壶、尊、洗、瓮、盘、碗、勺、筒杯、甑、釜等。为适应当时厚葬的需要,一些质地较软的器物如盒、盘、案、杯、鸡、狗、猪、羊、住宅、圈舍模型大量生产,并逐渐成组出现,时代变化明显,为汉代陶器的断代研究提供了宝贵资料。陶是瓷器之祖,没有陶器,就不会有瓷器的蓬勃发展。在距今3000多年前的商代遗址中,发现了原始青瓷器,这是我国最早的瓷器,它比陶晚出生了几千年。瓷虽然源于陶,却不等同于陶,二者在制造材料和烧造环境上有很大的区别:陶器主要是以粘土为原料,烧制温度一般不超过摄氏1000度,胎质比较粗松,器表一般无釉或只涂有低温釉;瓷器是以高岭土等作为原料,经过至少摄氏1200度的高温,并在表面涂以高温釉烧制而成。虽然最贵的陶只有几千万,远不及创下纪录的元青花鬼谷下山图罐(2.3亿元),但只言瓷而不论陶,有“数典忘祖”之嫌。此外,陶器极具学术价值。它从一定程度上反映历史的面貌,比如,有彩绘的陶器,不仅使陶有了艺术价值,也见证了人类的绘画史,是我国工艺美术史的开端。虽然陶不如瓷漂亮,但却更具历史价值。

发簪

自中华文化开明以来,人类就结束了蓬头垢面的生活,开始注重自身仪表。从新石器时代遗址中发现的大量骨发簪,足以证明古中国的审美意识的觉醒。发簪,是中华文化中的一颗明珠。在历史的变迁中,发簪也随洪流而变化,发展出钗、步摇等品族。这于万千青丝上 绽放的华簪,不只是使人光鲜亮丽的装饰品,更是中国美学的一种体现。

发簪,古代中国用来固定和装饰头发的一种首饰。对于现代女性来说已经是一个很古老的名词了,但是当在看古装剧时,却总是能被它们点缀出的精致效果所折服。

簪又叫“笄”,自古以来,深受人们的喜爱。发簪对于现代女性来说已经是一个很古老的名词了,但是当我们在看古装剧时,却总是能被它们点缀出的精致效果所折服。

古代发笄形式繁多,仅以质料上看,就有骨、石、陶、蚌、荆、竹、木、玉、铜、金、象牙、牛角及玳瑁等多种。发簪式样十分丰富,主要变化多集中在簪首。它有各种各样的形状,还爱用花鸟鱼虫、飞禽走兽作簪首形状。常见的花种有梅花、莲花、菊花、桃花、牡丹花和芙蓉花等。

将长发松松挽起,插上一枚别致的发簪,再配上典雅的长裙,即便性格再外放的女性,也可以成为让人眼前一亮的古典美人。发簪金属的光泽闪耀在发间,加上小而巧的坠饰,长发的风情便又是一种不一样的感受了。发簪在4000多年的发展变化中,已经成为了中国文化中不可缺少的一部分,是东方美的代表之一。完整的发簪存世量越来越少,流传下来并且做工精致的发簪数量并不多,因而古代发簪的收藏也就具有了很大的投资潜力。此对葵花青铜发簪非常适合收藏和投资之用,展现了古人们深深的文化情结和充满民族特色的审美情趣。

 

第四套人民币

第四套人民币是1987年4月27日开始陆续发行的,主币有1元、2元、5元、10元、50元和100元六种,辅币有1角、2角和5角三种,主辅币共九种。第四套人民币发行后,先与 第三套人民币混合流通,正与第五套人民币在市场上混合流通,但实际上第四套人民币中的不少券别在市面上已很少见,有个别品种实际上已进入收藏领域。 第四套人民币问世至今已达30年之久,由于其发行流通之际也正是人们收藏意识提高之时,因此大部分票券存世量还相当大,收藏与投资第四套人民币仍需十分慎重。第四套人民币绝大多数品种存世量逐渐减少,2角,2元银行已只收不付整整11年,这部分券别还是值得人们收藏的。

The fourth set of RMB began to be issued on April 27, 1987. There are six main currencies: 1 yuan, 2 yuan, 5 yuan, 10 yuan, 50 yuan and 100 yuan. There are three auxiliary currencies: dime, dime and 50 yuan. There are nine main and auxiliary currencies. After the issuance of the fourth set of Renminbi, the third set of Renminbi is mixed with the fifth set of Renminbi in the market, but in fact, many of the fourth set of Renminbi securities are rare in the market, and some of them have actually entered the collection field. The fourth set of Renminbi has been published for 30 years. Because the issue and circulation of the fourth set of Renminbi coincide with the improvement of people's collection consciousness, most of the vouchers still exist in large quantities. Collection and investment of the fourth set of Renminbi still need to be very careful. The fourth set of RMB stock of the vast majority of varieties is gradually decreasing. 2 cents, 2 yuan bank has only received or not paid for 11 years, this part of the vouchers are still worth collecting.

 

四套人民币全部券别中,升值最快的可算是80版50元券,该券存世量很少,在市面上几乎无流通。早在上世纪90年代中期,第四套人民币1990版50元券发行后不久,该券就逐步被银行回收。当时在钱币市场里,80版50元券很快就攀升到65元一张,在以后很漫长的日子里,该券一直呈慢牛上升走势,现该券最新市场价已达到3000元一张,比面额整整翻了四十番。还有1980版100元券,存世量也较少,现市面上也无流通,目前最新市场价约2000元一张。另外一些小面额券种,如80版1元和2元券,现存世量不多,也值得人们关注。投资小面额券种大多数以整捆(即千张连号)或整封(即百张连号)的为主,现80版1元每张市价约10元;80版2元每张市价约40元。还有80版2元券图案漂亮、印制精美,存世量也不多,现单张价已涨到近100元,因2元券面额低,在藏市售价不高,属价廉物美品种,后市升值潜力较大。

 

Among the four sets of RMB coupons, the fastest appreciation is the 80 version of 50 yuan coupon, which has a small stock and hardly circulates in the market. As early as the mid-1990s, shortly after the issuance of the fourth set of RMB 50-Yuan securities in 1990, the securities were gradually recovered by banks. At that time, in the coin market, 80 edition 50 yuan coupon quickly climbed to 65 yuan a piece. In the long days to come, the coupon has been on a slow upward trend. Now the latest market price of the coupon has reached 3000 yuan a piece, and its specific value has totally doubled by 40 times. There are also the 1980 version of 100 yuan vouchers, the stock is less, there is no circulation on the market, the latest market price is about 2,000 yuan a piece. Other small denomination coupons, such as 80 version 1 yuan and 2 yuan coupons, are not available in large quantities and deserve our attention. Most of the small-denomination securities invested are bundled (i.e. thousands of serial numbers) or sealed (i.e. hundreds of serial numbers). The market price of the 80 edition is about 10 yuan per sheet and that of the 80 edition is about 40 yuan per sheet. There are also 80 editions of 2-yuan coupons with beautiful patterns, exquisite printing and small stock. The price of single coupons has risen to nearly 100 yuan. Because of the low denomination of 2-yuan coupons, the price of 2-yuan coupons is not high in Tibetan market, and it is a cheap and high-quality product with great potential for future appreciation.